여러 서버들은 리눅스 운영체제를 이용하고 있습니다.

그 중 가장 보편적으로 알고 계시고 사용되어 지는 것이 우분투나 데비안, 센트OS 등이고, 빨간모자를 비롯한 다른 여러 유로 운영체제 또한 이용하고 계십니다.


각각의 운영체제에서는 응용프로그램이나 패키지를 설치하는 명령어가 상이합니다.


그 중 우분투에서 사용하는 명령은 바로 apt-get 명령인데요, FULL 설치되지 않은 곳이나 특정 패키지가 필요할 경우 apt-get install 명령으로 설치할 수가 있습니다.

apt-get 실행에 있어 패키지의 설치, 제거, 업데이트, 업그레이드 등을 수행하는 방법과 apt-get 의 여러 옵션을 알려드리도록 하겠습니다.


가장 많이 사용하는 것이 패키지의 업그레이드입니다.

apt-get upgrade   ☞ 모든 패키지 대상으로 최신 버전으로 업그레이드


패키지 목록을 새로 가져옵니다.

apt-get update   ☞ 패키지 목록을 새로 고침


apt-get


새로운 패키지의 설치 방법입니다.

apt-get install xxx   ☞ xxx 패키지를 설치


패키지의 재설치 방법입니다.

apt-get reinstall xxx   ☞ xxx 패키지를 재설치


패키지의 삭제 방법입니다.

apt-get remove xxx   ☞ xxx 패키지를 삭제 (설정 파일 유지)


패키지의 완전 삭제 방법입니다.

apt-get purge xxx   ☞ xxx 패키지를 완전 삭제 (설정 파일까지 삭제)


패키지 검색 방법입니다.

apt-cache search xxx   ☞ xxx 가 포함된 패키지를 검색


패키지의 정보를 보는 방법입니다.

apt-cache show xxx   ☞ xxx 패키지 정보 표시


설치에 사용한 패키지 라이브러리 파일을 삭제하는 명령입니다.

apt-get clean   ☞ /var/cache/apt/archives 경로의 패키지 라이브러리 설치파일 삭제


apt-get


apt-get 모든 옵션은 아래 박스를 참고하시기 바라며, dpkg 를 이용하기도 하오니 참고하시기 바랍니다.

NAME

       apt-get - APT package handling utility -- command-line interface


SYNOPSIS

       apt-get [-asqdyfmubV] [-o=config_string] [-c=config_file] [-t=target_release]

               [-a=architecture] {update | upgrade | dselect-upgrade | dist-upgrade |

               install pkg [{=pkg_version_number | /target_release}]...  | remove pkg...  |

               purge pkg...  | source pkg [{=pkg_version_number | /target_release}]...  |

               build-dep pkg [{=pkg_version_number | /target_release}]...  |

               download pkg [{=pkg_version_number | /target_release}]...  | check | clean |

               autoclean | autoremove | {-v | --version} | {-h | --help}}


DESCRIPTION

       apt-get is the command-line tool for handling packages, and may be considered the user's

       "back-end" to other tools using the APT library. Several "front-end" interfaces exist,

       such as aptitude(8), synaptic(8) and wajig(1).


       Unless the -h, or --help option is given, one of the commands below must be present.


       update

           update is used to resynchronize the package index files from their sources. The

           indexes of available packages are fetched from the location(s) specified in

           /etc/apt/sources.list. For example, when using a Debian archive, this command

           retrieves and scans the Packages.gz files, so that information about new and updated

           packages is available. An update should always be performed before an upgrade or

           dist-upgrade. Please be aware that the overall progress meter will be incorrect as the

           size of the package files cannot be known in advance.


       upgrade

           upgrade is used to install the newest versions of all packages currently installed on

           the system from the sources enumerated in /etc/apt/sources.list. Packages currently

           installed with new versions available are retrieved and upgraded; under no

           circumstances are currently installed packages removed, or packages not already

           installed retrieved and installed. New versions of currently installed packages that

           cannot be upgraded without changing the install status of another package will be left

           at their current version. An update must be performed first so that apt-get knows that

           new versions of packages are available.


       dist-upgrade

           dist-upgrade in addition to performing the function of upgrade, also intelligently

           handles changing dependencies with new versions of packages; apt-get has a "smart"

           conflict resolution system, and it will attempt to upgrade the most important packages

           at the expense of less important ones if necessary. The dist-upgrade command may

           therefore remove some packages. The /etc/apt/sources.list file contains a list of

           locations from which to retrieve desired package files. See also apt_preferences(5)

           for a mechanism for overriding the general settings for individual packages.


       dselect-upgrade

           dselect-upgrade is used in conjunction with the traditional Debian packaging

           front-end, dselect(1).  dselect-upgrade follows the changes made by dselect(1) to the

           Status field of available packages, and performs the actions necessary to realize that

           state (for instance, the removal of old and the installation of new packages).


       install

           install is followed by one or more packages desired for installation or upgrading.

           Each package is a package name, not a fully qualified filename (for instance, in a

           Debian system, apt-utils would be the argument provided, not

           apt-utils_1.2.10_amd64.deb). All packages required by the package(s) specified for

           installation will also be retrieved and installed. The /etc/apt/sources.list file is

           used to locate the desired packages. If a hyphen is appended to the package name (with

           no intervening space), the identified package will be removed if it is installed.

           Similarly a plus sign can be used to designate a package to install. These latter

           features may be used to override decisions made by apt-get's conflict resolution

           system.


           A specific version of a package can be selected for installation by following the

           package name with an equals and the version of the package to select. This will cause

           that version to be located and selected for install. Alternatively a specific

           distribution can be selected by following the package name with a slash and the

           version of the distribution or the Archive name (stable, testing, unstable).


           Both of the version selection mechanisms can downgrade packages and must be used with

           care.


           This is also the target to use if you want to upgrade one or more already-installed

           packages without upgrading every package you have on your system. Unlike the "upgrade"

           target, which installs the newest version of all currently installed packages,

           "install" will install the newest version of only the package(s) specified. Simply

           provide the name of the package(s) you wish to upgrade, and if a newer version is

           available, it (and its dependencies, as described above) will be downloaded and

           installed.


           Finally, the apt_preferences(5) mechanism allows you to create an alternative

           installation policy for individual packages.


           If no package matches the given expression and the expression contains one of '.', '?'

           or '*' then it is assumed to be a POSIX regular expression, and it is applied to all

           package names in the database. Any matches are then installed (or removed). Note that

           matching is done by substring so 'lo.*' matches 'how-lo' and 'lowest'. If this is

           undesired, anchor the regular expression with a '^' or '$' character, or create a more

           specific regular expression.


       remove

           remove is identical to install except that packages are removed instead of installed.

           Note that removing a package leaves its configuration files on the system. If a plus

           sign is appended to the package name (with no intervening space), the identified

           package will be installed instead of removed.


       purge

           purge is identical to remove except that packages are removed and purged (any

           configuration files are deleted too).


       source

           source causes apt-get to fetch source packages. APT will examine the available

           packages to decide which source package to fetch. It will then find and download into

           the current directory the newest available version of that source package while

           respecting the default release, set with the option APT::Default-Release, the -t

           option or per package with the pkg/release syntax, if possible.


           Source packages are tracked separately from binary packages via deb-src lines in the

           sources.list(5) file. This means that you will need to add such a line for each

           repository you want to get sources from; otherwise you will probably get either the

           wrong (too old/too new) source versions or none at all.


           If the --compile option is specified then the package will be compiled to a binary

           .deb using dpkg-buildpackage for the architecture as defined by the

           --host-architecture option. If --download-only is specified then the source package

           will not be unpacked.


           A specific source version can be retrieved by postfixing the source name with an

           equals and then the version to fetch, similar to the mechanism used for the package

           files. This enables exact matching of the source package name and version, implicitly

           enabling the APT::Get::Only-Source option.


           Note that source packages are not installed and tracked in the dpkg database like

           binary packages; they are simply downloaded to the current directory, like source

           tarballs.


       build-dep

           build-dep causes apt-get to install/remove packages in an attempt to satisfy the build

           dependencies for a source package. By default the dependencies are satisfied to build

           the package natively. If desired a host-architecture can be specified with the

           --host-architecture option instead.


       check

           check is a diagnostic tool; it updates the package cache and checks for broken

           dependencies.


       download

           download will download the given binary package into the current directory.


       clean

           clean clears out the local repository of retrieved package files. It removes

           everything but the lock file from /var/cache/apt/archives/ and

           /var/cache/apt/archives/partial/.


       autoclean (and the auto-clean alias since 1.1)

           Like clean, autoclean clears out the local repository of retrieved package files. The

           difference is that it only removes package files that can no longer be downloaded, and

           are largely useless. This allows a cache to be maintained over a long period without

           it growing out of control. The configuration option APT::Clean-Installed will prevent

           installed packages from being erased if it is set to off.


       autoremove (and the auto-remove alias since 1.1)

           autoremove is used to remove packages that were automatically installed to satisfy

           dependencies for other packages and are now no longer needed.


       changelog

           changelog tries to download the changelog of a package and displays it through

           sensible-pager. By default it displays the changelog for the version that is

           installed. However, you can specify the same options as for the install command.


       indextargets

           Displays by default a deb822 formatted listing of information about all data files

           (aka index targets) apt-get update would download. Supports a --format option to

           modify the output format as well as accepts lines of the default output to filter the

           records by. The command is mainly used as an interface for external tools working with

           APT to get information as well as filenames for downloaded files so they can use them

           as well instead of downloading them again on their own. Detailed documentation is

           omitted here and can instead be found in the source tree in

           doc/acquire-additional-files.txt.


OPTIONS

       All command line options may be set using the configuration file, the descriptions

       indicate the configuration option to set. For boolean options you can override the config

       file by using something like -f-,--no-f, -f=no or several other variations.


       --no-install-recommends

           Do not consider recommended packages as a dependency for installing. Configuration

           Item: APT::Install-Recommends.


       --install-suggests

           Consider suggested packages as a dependency for installing. Configuration Item:

           APT::Install-Suggests.


       -d, --download-only

           Download only; package files are only retrieved, not unpacked or installed.

           Configuration Item: APT::Get::Download-Only.


       -f, --fix-broken

           Fix; attempt to correct a system with broken dependencies in place. This option, when

           used with install/remove, can omit any packages to permit APT to deduce a likely

           solution. If packages are specified, these have to completely correct the problem. The

           option is sometimes necessary when running APT for the first time; APT itself does not

           allow broken package dependencies to exist on a system. It is possible that a system's

           dependency structure can be so corrupt as to require manual intervention (which

           usually means using dpkg --remove to eliminate some of the offending packages). Use of

           this option together with -m may produce an error in some situations. Configuration

           Item: APT::Get::Fix-Broken.


       -m, --ignore-missing, --fix-missing

           Ignore missing packages; if packages cannot be retrieved or fail the integrity check

           after retrieval (corrupted package files), hold back those packages and handle the

           result. Use of this option together with -f may produce an error in some situations.

           If a package is selected for installation (particularly if it is mentioned on the

           command line) and it could not be downloaded then it will be silently held back.

           Configuration Item: APT::Get::Fix-Missing.


       --no-download

           Disables downloading of packages. This is best used with --ignore-missing to force APT

           to use only the .debs it has already downloaded. Configuration Item:

           APT::Get::Download.


       -q, --quiet

           Quiet; produces output suitable for logging, omitting progress indicators. More q's

           will produce more quiet up to a maximum of 2. You can also use -q=# to set the quiet

           level, overriding the configuration file. Note that quiet level 2 implies -y; you

           should never use -qq without a no-action modifier such as -d, --print-uris or -s as

           APT may decide to do something you did not expect. Configuration Item: quiet.


       -s, --simulate, --just-print, --dry-run, --recon, --no-act

           No action; perform a simulation of events that would occur based on the current system

           state but do not actually change the system. Locking will be disabled

           (Debug::NoLocking) so the system state could change while apt-get is running.

           Simulations can also be executed by non-root users which might not have read access to

           all apt configuration distorting the simulation. A notice expressing this warning is

           also shown by default for non-root users (APT::Get::Show-User-Simulation-Note).

           Configuration Item: APT::Get::Simulate.


           Simulated runs print out a series of lines, each representing a dpkg operation:

           configure (Conf), remove (Remv) or unpack (Inst). Square brackets indicate broken

           packages, and empty square brackets indicate breaks that are of no consequence (rare).


       -y, --yes, --assume-yes

           Automatic yes to prompts; assume "yes" as answer to all prompts and run

           non-interactively. If an undesirable situation, such as changing a held package,

           trying to install a unauthenticated package or removing an essential package occurs

           then apt-get will abort. Configuration Item: APT::Get::Assume-Yes.


       --assume-no

           Automatic "no" to all prompts. Configuration Item: APT::Get::Assume-No.


       -u, --show-upgraded

           Show upgraded packages; print out a list of all packages that are to be upgraded.

           Configuration Item: APT::Get::Show-Upgraded.


       -V, --verbose-versions

           Show full versions for upgraded and installed packages. Configuration Item:

           APT::Get::Show-Versions.


       -a, --host-architecture

           This option controls the architecture packages are built for by apt-get source

           --compile and how cross-builddependencies are satisfied. By default is it not set

           which means that the host architecture is the same as the build architecture (which is

           defined by APT::Architecture). Configuration Item: APT::Get::Host-Architecture.


       -P, --build-profiles

           This option controls the activated build profiles for which a source package is built

           by apt-get source --compile and how build dependencies are satisfied. By default no

           build profile is active. More than one build profile can be activated at a time by

           concatenating them with a comma. Configuration Item: APT::Build-Profiles.


       -b, --compile, --build

           Compile source packages after downloading them. Configuration Item: APT::Get::Compile.


       --ignore-hold

           Ignore package holds; this causes apt-get to ignore a hold placed on a package. This

           may be useful in conjunction with dist-upgrade to override a large number of undesired

           holds. Configuration Item: APT::Ignore-Hold.


       --with-new-pkgs

           Allow installing new packages when used in conjunction with upgrade. This is useful if

           the update of a installed package requires new dependencies to be installed. Instead

           of holding the package back upgrade will upgrade the package and install the new

           dependencies. Note that upgrade with this option will never remove packages, only

           allow adding new ones. Configuration Item: APT::Get::Upgrade-Allow-New.


       --no-upgrade

           Do not upgrade packages; when used in conjunction with install, no-upgrade will

           prevent packages on the command line from being upgraded if they are already

           installed. Configuration Item: APT::Get::Upgrade.


       --only-upgrade

           Do not install new packages; when used in conjunction with install, only-upgrade will

           install upgrades for already installed packages only and ignore requests to install

           new packages. Configuration Item: APT::Get::Only-Upgrade.


       --allow-downgrades

           This is a dangerous option that will cause apt to continue without prompting if it is

           doing downgrades. It should not be used except in very special situations. Using it

           can potentially destroy your system! Configuration Item: APT::Get::allow-downgrades.

           Introduced in APT 1.1.


       --allow-remove-essential

           Force yes; this is a dangerous option that will cause apt to continue without

           prompting if it is removing essentials. It should not be used except in very special

           situations. Using it can potentially destroy your system! Configuration Item:

           APT::Get::allow-remove-essential. Introduced in APT 1.1.


       --allow-change-held-packages

           Force yes; this is a dangerous option that will cause apt to continue without

           prompting if it is changing held packages. It should not be used except in very

           special situations. Using it can potentially destroy your system! Configuration Item:

           APT::Get::allow-change-held-packages. Introduced in APT 1.1.


       --force-yes

           Force yes; this is a dangerous option that will cause apt to continue without

           prompting if it is doing something potentially harmful. It should not be used except

           in very special situations. Using force-yes can potentially destroy your system!

           Configuration Item: APT::Get::force-yes. This is deprecated and replaced by

           --allow-downgrades, --allow-remove-essential, --allow-change-held-packages in 1.1.


       --print-uris

           Instead of fetching the files to install their URIs are printed. Each URI will have

           the path, the destination file name, the size and the expected MD5 hash. Note that the

           file name to write to will not always match the file name on the remote site! This

           also works with the source and update commands. When used with the update command the

           MD5 and size are not included, and it is up to the user to decompress any compressed

           files. Configuration Item: APT::Get::Print-URIs.


       --purge

           Use purge instead of remove for anything that would be removed. An asterisk ("*") will

           be displayed next to packages which are scheduled to be purged.  remove --purge is

           equivalent to the purge command. Configuration Item: APT::Get::Purge.


       --reinstall

           Re-install packages that are already installed and at the newest version.

           Configuration Item: APT::Get::ReInstall.


       --list-cleanup

           This option is on by default; use --no-list-cleanup to turn it off. When it is on,

           apt-get will automatically manage the contents of /var/lib/apt/lists to ensure that

           obsolete files are erased. The only reason to turn it off is if you frequently change

           your sources list. Configuration Item: APT::Get::List-Cleanup.


       -t, --target-release, --default-release

           This option controls the default input to the policy engine; it creates a default pin

           at priority 990 using the specified release string. This overrides the general

           settings in /etc/apt/preferences. Specifically pinned packages are not affected by the

           value of this option. In short, this option lets you have simple control over which

           distribution packages will be retrieved from. Some common examples might be -t '2.1*',

           -t unstable or -t sid. Configuration Item: APT::Default-Release; see also the

           apt_preferences(5) manual page.


       --trivial-only

           Only perform operations that are 'trivial'. Logically this can be considered related

           to --assume-yes; where --assume-yes will answer yes to any prompt, --trivial-only will

           answer no. Configuration Item: APT::Get::Trivial-Only.


       --no-remove

           If any packages are to be removed apt-get immediately aborts without prompting.

           Configuration Item: APT::Get::Remove.


       --auto-remove

           If the command is either install or remove, then this option acts like running the

           autoremove command, removing unused dependency packages. Configuration Item:

           APT::Get::AutomaticRemove.


       --only-source

           Only has meaning for the source and build-dep commands. Indicates that the given

           source names are not to be mapped through the binary table. This means that if this

           option is specified, these commands will only accept source package names as

           arguments, rather than accepting binary package names and looking up the corresponding

           source package. Configuration Item: APT::Get::Only-Source.


       --diff-only, --dsc-only, --tar-only

           Download only the diff, dsc, or tar file of a source archive. Configuration Item:

           APT::Get::Diff-Only, APT::Get::Dsc-Only, and APT::Get::Tar-Only.


       --arch-only

           Only process architecture-dependent build-dependencies. Configuration Item:

           APT::Get::Arch-Only.


       --allow-unauthenticated

           Ignore if packages can't be authenticated and don't prompt about it. This can be

           useful while working with local repositories, but is a huge security risk if data

           authenticity isn't ensured in another way by the user itself. The usage of the Trusted

           option for sources.list(5) entries should usually be preferred over this global

           override. Configuration Item: APT::Get::AllowUnauthenticated.


       --no-allow-insecure-repositories

           Forbid the update command to acquire unverifiable data from configured sources. Apt

           will fail at the update command for repositories without valid cryptographically

           signatures. Configuration Item: Acquire::AllowInsecureRepositories.


       --show-progress

           Show user friendly progress information in the terminal window when packages are

           installed, upgraded or removed. For a machine parsable version of this data see

           README.progress-reporting in the apt doc directory. Configuration Item: Dpkg::Progress

           and Dpkg::Progress-Fancy.


       -h, --help

           Show a short usage summary.


       -v, --version

           Show the program version.


       -c, --config-file

           Configuration File; Specify a configuration file to use. The program will read the

           default configuration file and then this configuration file. If configuration settings

           need to be set before the default configuration files are parsed specify a file with

           the APT_CONFIG environment variable. See apt.conf(5) for syntax information.


       -o, --option

           Set a Configuration Option; This will set an arbitrary configuration option. The

           syntax is -o Foo::Bar=bar.  -o and --option can be used multiple times to set

           different options.


FILES

       /etc/apt/sources.list

           Locations to fetch packages from. Configuration Item: Dir::Etc::SourceList.


       /etc/apt/sources.list.d/

           File fragments for locations to fetch packages from. Configuration Item:

           Dir::Etc::SourceParts.


       /etc/apt/apt.conf

           APT configuration file. Configuration Item: Dir::Etc::Main.


       /etc/apt/apt.conf.d/

           APT configuration file fragments. Configuration Item: Dir::Etc::Parts.


       /etc/apt/preferences

           Version preferences file. This is where you would specify "pinning", i.e. a preference

           to get certain packages from a separate source or from a different version of a

           distribution. Configuration Item: Dir::Etc::Preferences.


       /etc/apt/preferences.d/

           File fragments for the version preferences. Configuration Item:

           Dir::Etc::PreferencesParts.


       /var/cache/apt/archives/

           Storage area for retrieved package files. Configuration Item: Dir::Cache::Archives.


       /var/cache/apt/archives/partial/

           Storage area for package files in transit. Configuration Item: Dir::Cache::Archives

           (partial will be implicitly appended)


       /var/lib/apt/lists/

           Storage area for state information for each package resource specified in

           sources.list(5) Configuration Item: Dir::State::Lists.


       /var/lib/apt/lists/partial/

           Storage area for state information in transit. Configuration Item: Dir::State::Lists

           (partial will be implicitly appended)


SEE ALSO

       apt-cache(8), apt-cdrom(8), dpkg(1), sources.list(5), apt.conf(5), apt-config(8), apt-

       secure(8), The APT User's guide in /usr/share/doc/apt-doc/, apt_preferences(5), the APT

       Howto.


DIAGNOSTICS

       apt-get returns zero on normal operation, decimal 100 on error.


BUGS

       APT bug page[1]. If you wish to report a bug in APT, please see

       /usr/share/doc/debian/bug-reporting.txt or the reportbug(1) command.


AUTHORS

       Jason Gunthorpe


       APT team


NOTES

        1. APT bug page

           http://bugs.debian.org/src:apt